The fancy goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater aquarium fish which is also known as common goldfish. It is native to eastern Asia which is distributed from Siberia to China and it has now spread around the world. It inhabits rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches with vegetated stagnant or slow-flowing water.
Crassius auratus was first domesticated in China. It was bred about 1000 years ago in China for aquaria, ornamental ponds and as food fish. According to Dr. Yoshiichi Matsui, a professor of fish culture at Kinki University in Japan, Carassius carassius is the wild version of the fancy goldfish. It belongs to the carp or minnow family, Cyprinidae under order Cypriniformes of Class Actinopterygii. Now many ornamental breeds have developed for aquariums and water gardens throughout the world.
The Fancy goldfish is a favorite fish for aquarium hobbyist. 25 gallons or larger aquarium is recommended to keep fancy gold fish. It is usually very hardy fish and it can live in temperatures which range from 65.0 to 72.0° F. The tank should have pH and hardness which ranges from 6.0 to 8.0 and 5 to 19° dGH respectively. This fish swims in all areas of the aquarium. They should be kept in groups of 5 or more individuals. It does usually better when it is kept with other goldfish. Some good tank mates for fancy goldfish are the Chinese Blue Bitterling and the Northern Redbelly Dace. Other potential tank mates include white cloud mountian minnows and similar cold water species.
Good filtration especially biological filtration is required for maintaining the water quality of the aquarium. Because this filtration system removes detritus, excess foods and wastes which help to keep the tank clean and maintain the general health of the fish in aquarium. The tank should be decorated with gravel substrate that helps to create a natural and comfortable environment for your fish. Aquarium plants are the best choice of aquarium decor for your fancy goldfish. In these cases, artificial plants make a good substitute and silk plants are safer than plastic plants. A regular weekly water change is strongly recommended to keep your fish healthy. Snails can be added as they reduce the algae in the tank that helps to keep the tank clean.
The fancy goldfish is omnivores and in wild condition it mainly feeds on plants, insects such as mosquito larvae, small crustaceans, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and detritus. In captive condition it gladly accepts most fish foods including flakes live and freeze dried varieties. It should be fed a balanced diet that includes freeze dried Tubifex worms, mosquito larva, bloodworms, Daphnia, brine shrimp and vegetation such as boiled peas and lettuce, aquatic plants such as duckweed, azolla or salvinia and algae. Feed should be supplied two or three mouthfuls per fish twice a day.
It is easy to breed in aquarium. It reaches sexual maturity for breeding at the age of one year. During breeding season, the abdomen of the female becomes fuller and heavier. The male develops ‘breeding tubercles’ on the gill operculum and along the front rays of their pectoral fin and sometimes on the head. These ‘breeding tubercles’ are a white pimple roughly the size of a pin head. The fish should be kept in separate tanks before breeding. They are actually capable of breeding in the early morning light when the temperature of the water is between 50-78.8 0F but the optimum temperature is 68 0F. The female lays 500 to 1000 eggs on plants on the bottom of the tank and eggs hatch in 48-72 hours. The optimum temperature for the eggs to hatch is 69.8 0F. The hatched fry are very small and it grows in size rapidly and after 12 months it shows adult coloration. After spawning the parent fish should be removed to prevent them eating the eggs. The fry need to be fed sufficient food such as infusonia and brine shrimp for twenty minute period and any uneaten food should be siphoned off.
It is nearly impossible to sex a fancy goldfish accurately less than 1.5 – 2 years of age. The only way to sex your goldfish is during the breeding season. Males have small white spots called tubercles around their gill areas when ready to spawn. Females may have rounder convex vents while males have thinner concave vents.
This popular aquarium fish are available for you to choose. But good quality fish is scarce. Unable to buy good quality fancy goldfish is one of the major frustrations for goldfish lovers. You can choose from a wide range of selection and price that fit your budget. See below online vendors to buy your favorite fish that I would recommend from.
- Fancy Goldfish
- Fish Wiki